Mental abuse relationships

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The present study aimed to investigate the moderating roles of gender and age on emotional abuse within intimate relationships. This study included participants with an average age of 27 years. Participants completed the Emotional Abuse Questionnaire EAQ; Jacobson and Gottman,whose four subscales are isolation, degradation, sexual abuse, and property damage. Younger men reported experiencing higher levels of emotional abuse, which declined with age.

Older females reported experiencing less emotional abuse than older males.

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Overall, emotional abuse was more common in younger participants. are interpreted through the Social Exchange and Conflict frameworks. As currently indexed, violent crimes against intimate partners—current or former spouses, boyfriends, and girlfriends—are committed more frequently against women; these include lethal homicide and non-lethal rape, assault forms Catalano, However, abusive behavior does not always involve tangible violence.

Emotional abuse is any nonphysical behavior or attitude that is deed to control, subdue, punish, or isolate another person through the use of humiliation or fear Engel, The present paper focuses on this form of abuse while examining its relationships to age and gender. It targets the emotional and psychological well-being of the victim, and it is often a precursor to physical abuse. Gender and age are pertinent to the burgeoning study of emotional abuse. The focus of research on relationship violence has traditionally been on youth and women of childbearing age as the prototypical victims, but there is now evidence thwarting this conventional view.

For instance, men can be victims of IPV e. Mills et al. Therefore, the current paper aims not only to investigate emotional abuse, but also to examine how it relates to the gender and age of the victim. Some types of physical behavior can be considered emotional abuse in that they represent physical violence Marshall, Examples include: throwing objects, kicking a wall, shaking a finger or fist at the victim, driving recklessly while the victim is in the car, or threatening to destroy objects the victim values.

Much evidence has accumulated chronicling the deleterious effects specific to emotional abuse. Emotionally abused women can be more lonely and despairing than physically abused women Loring, Van Houdenhove et al. For the termination of an abusive marriage, a better indicator than frequency of physical violence may instead be the severity of emotional abuse, and over time, emotional abuse can be as powerful a control tactic as physical abuse Jacobson et al.

Further, Sackett and Saunders investigated the impact of different forms of abuse on women receiving services from a domestic violence agency and found that both emotional abuse and physical abuse contributed to depression and low self-esteem. Due to the complexity of operationalizing emotional abuse, researchers have had difficulty consistently measuring emotional abuse.

The development of a valid measurement is hindered by the relative dearth of research on emotional abuse in comparison with research on physical or sexual violence. Some studies use behavioral checklists to measure emotional abuse Garcia-Moreno et al. Partially as a result of difficulties in measurement, calculating accurate prevalence estimates for emotional abuse has been challenging.

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Psychological aggression was measured by combining questions based on both expressive aggression e. Psychological aggression by an intimate partner was reported by Consequently, emotional abuse appears to be the most common form of IPV. According to a study by Coker et al. Psychological abuse was measured by two subscales, verbal abuse and abuse of power and control, created from the Power and Control Scale Johnson, Women were ificantly more likely to experience physical or sexual IPV and abuse of power and control alone; the prevalence of physical IPV alone was Women were less likely to report verbal abuse alone, and the prevalence of psychological IPV alone was In both males and females, physical and psychological IPV were associated with physical and mental health sequelae Coker et al.

Another study by Coker et al. Overall, emotional abuse within intimate relationships is common in the United States US and is likely the most pervasive form of relationship maltreatment. The present study seeks to elucidate the relationships between emotional abuse, gender, and age. In the next two subsections, we discuss the literature on the effects of gender and age on emotional abuse.

However, there is limited literature on the interplay between these two fundamental constructs in their relationship to emotional abuse. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the interaction between gender and age in the path to emotional abuse.

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According to Johnsonthere are two main forms of violence. Some relationships suffer from conflict-related outbursts of violence: Situational or common couple violence. This form of violence is rarer but frequently devastating and often involves economic subordination, threats, isolation, and other control tactics; it is referred to as intimate terrorism or patriarchal terrorism.

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With time, the severity of violent behaviors tends to intensify Johnson, However, the relationship of gender to IPV is not as unambiguous and unilateral as was once assumed, i. Recent research suggests some women actively perpetrate violence against their partners, and debates over the gender symmetry of IPV have generated sizeable controversy. A meta-analytic review by Archer found women were slightly more likely to use physical aggression in a relationship; however, men were more likely to inflict an injury.

The majority of the studies included were conducted in the US in the late twentieth century, and roughly half of the sample was students, thus limiting generalizability. Archer also concluded that measures based on acts of violence e. When measures were based on specific acts, more women than men used physical aggression; when measures were based on consequences of aggression, men were more likely than women to injure their partners.

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IPV among university students appears to occur at excessive rates. A meta-analysis of female perpetration of IPV within heterosexual relationships by Williams, Ghandour, and Kub looked at different forms of abuse within three populations: adolescents, college students, and adults. The specific types of violence that comprised the —physical, sexual, and emotional—were defined by research team and therefore varied in definition, specificity, and severity.

Only 11 of the 62 articles included in the review examined some form of emotional abuse; studies looking at both verbal and psychological abuse were included. Due to methodological and sampling differences across studies, prevalence estimates varied widely and it was not possible to ascertain a developmental trajectory, but within all groups, emotional abuse was the most prevalent form of IPV. In terms of both psychological and physical abuse, there were no statistically ificant gender differences.

Physical aggression tended to co-exist with psychological aggression. In contrast to research, no gender differences emerged regarding injuries. Straus contends that although violence perpetrated by women may result in fewer fatalities than male-perpetrated IPV, it is a substantial proportion of all injuries and needs to be addressed within the broader framework of ending IPV.

Further, violence perpetrated by women, though frequently minor, makes them vulnerable to severe retaliation by men. Despite high perpetration rates across genders, a review has concluded that women are still disproportionately victimized by IPV and more frequently sustain serious injuries Hamberger, Overall, a better understanding of gender effects on IPV is needed as it pertains to emotional abuse.

A few studies have addressed the role of age on IPV, with the focus primarily on physical violence. In a stratified cluster sample of 5, high school students from a study conducted by Coker et al. SDV and forced sex were associated with poorer health-related quality of life, lower life-satisfaction, and more adverse health behaviors both in female victims and male perpetrators Coker et al. The authors collected data by modifying the CTS. Boys and girls reported similar frequencies of overall violence, but girls reported experiencing more moderate and severe forms of violence along with more acute physical consequences.

Girls were much more likely to perceive assaults against them as serious with damaging physical and psychological effects. Boys perceived less negative impact on themselves and the relationship. Rivara et al. Younger birth cohorts were at a reduced risk for IPV, after correcting for age and period effects. Non-physical abuse was measured as follows: ten questions were taken from Smith, Smith, and Earpand Smith, Tessaro, and Earp from their WEB scale to measure psychological vulnerability, and the five-question scale developed by Wilson, Johnson, and Daly was used to measure autonomy-limiting behavior.

Rates of physical violence rose from age 22 until peaking at age 32 and decreased substantially after age Thus, rates of non-physical abuse were similar between younger and older women: Women appear vulnerable to emotional abuse across the lifespan. Further investigation is warranted to understand these age effects. Moreover, as can be seen from research focusing on relationship violence, age and gender are highly interwoven.

However, there is limited research that can unfold the complex interaction between gender and age and their relationship to emotional abuse. Therefore, this study aims to explore the answer to the question: what is the role of gender and age on emotional abuse in intimate relationships? This study included participants who were in a relationship for more than a year. The mean duration of the relationship was 33 months, ranging from 13 months to 30 years.

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Participants were either non-student community members or college students recruited through announcements around a large Midwestern and a large Southwestern university. The address of the investigator was provided in the flyers that were distributed in classrooms, around the campuses, and throughout the community. Participants contacted the investigator for answers to their questions and to arrange a time for participation. Before data collection, participants ed consent forms. Participants then completed questionnaires on demographic information and emotional abuse. A demographic questionnaire included questions about basic characteristics of the participants, including age, gender, race, education level, and socioeconomic status.

The remaining questions were related to relationship characteristics of the participants, including the duration of the relationship. In their original study of battered married women, Jacobson and Gottman found severe emotional abuse was more likely to drive women out of a relationship than severe physical abuse. They identified four distinct of emotional abuse: destruction of pets and property, sexual coercion, isolation attempts, and degradation.

Destruction of property was often used as an intimidation tactic, and sadistic behavior toward pets indicated a disregard toward the pain of living beings. Degradation was the most common type of severe emotional abuse, including both public and private insults. The EAQ was based off of this original study. It has 66 items assessing emotional abuse, each rated on a 4-point frequency scale Never to Very Often.

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The EAQ has four subscales: isolation, degradation, sexual abuse, and property damage. Internal consistency for the subscales is. The EAQ was chosen for the current study due to its wide range of different patterns of emotional abuse and its strong psychometric values. Scale scores were obtained by averaging the items. Higher scores indicated higher levels of experiencing emotional abuse.

Data for this study was collected using non-experimental, correlational de.

Mental abuse relationships

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