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Get involved in our campaigns and help ensure young people's health and rights. Also available in [ PDF ] format. Globally, around 76 countries currently criminalize same-sex relations and five countries impose the death penalty on people caught engaging in same-sex activities. In every region of the world, transgender individuals face ificant human rights violations. This violence further puts young people at a crossroad between having to choose between leading a life of secrecy, or face discrimination and violence.
In many countries around the world we have seen laws, either enacted or proposed that punish LGBT people and create a climate of fear and hostility. These laws do not just prohibit same-sex marriage or conduct, but also typically contain provisions that prohibit the formation of LGBT advocacy and support groups as well as restrict rights to freedom of expression and assembly most recently in Kyrgyzstan, Nigeria and Uganda further limiting the ability of young people to have a safe and open environment to live in and learn.
We have seen the emergence of an incredible and vibrant global LGBT movement; however young LGBT people are often excluded as is also the case within the broader civil society from decision making processes that define their socio-cultural and political environments which puts them at increased risk of becoming marginalized. Discriminatory laws and lack of legal protection around sexual orientation and gender identity creates a climate of fear and legitimizes harassment and violence perpetrated by state actors and further puts at risk LGBT people at violence perpetrated by the police, family and community.
LGBT young people in the Global South experience extreme hardship within their communities rendering it extremely difficult for them to lead healthy lives and become productive adults. LGBT youth are especially vulnerable to internalizing messages that frown upon any deviation from mainstream understandings of gender and sexuality which can lead to self-stigma, negative health outcomes and a diminished ability to envision a hopeful future.
Despite these ificant challenges, as a result of strong LGBTQ movement and advocay, there have also been exciting developments in the global south that has shifted the discourse and given everyone hope that the importance of human rights for LGBTQ people are finally on the global agenda. Written by M. Caribbean Sexuality: Mapping the Field. Caribbean Review of Gender Studies, Press enter to search.
Take Action the movement of young people working to protect our health and lives. Our Campaigns Get involved in our campaigns and help ensure young people's health and rights. Donate now Support youth activists working for reproductive and sexual health and rights. up Get text and updates. Introduction Globally, around 76 countries currently criminalize same-sex relations and five countries impose the death penalty on people caught engaging in same-sex activities.
In countries like El Salvador, Kyrgyzstan and South Africa, it has been documented that lesbian, bisexual, and transgender women are at risk for being raped or forcibly impregnated, based on the justification that women who are raped by a man will change their sexual orientation so-called corrective rape.
There are several reports of targeted killings of LGBT people in the world. For example, 31 LGBT people were killed in Honduras over an month period, 44 bias-motivated killings took place in the Europe inand a of targeted killings of lesbians happen in South Africa regularly. Organized resistance is often led by faith groups, Neo-nazis, paramilitary groups, or nationalist groups. Some LGBT leaders and civil society activists have become victims to the most extreme forms of violence. Over 78 percent of documented murders were in Central and South America.
Attacks are commonly identified as occurring in both public and private spaces. Discriminatory Laws and Lack of Legal Protection Discriminatory laws and lack of legal protection around sexual orientation and gender identity creates a climate of fear and legitimizes harassment and violence perpetrated by state actors and further puts at risk LGBT people at violence perpetrated by the police, family and community. Same-sex sexual relations are criminalized in 76 countries.
Punishments range from imprisonment to the death sentence in at least five countries. Some of these laws are inherited as colonial era laws. Most countries in the Global South have no non-discrimination statute regarding employment, access to housing, and government services for LGBT individuals. In fact, there have been several cases in which the police attack LGBT individuals in some communities around the world. According to a focus group convened in Asia by Youth Voices Count, rape of underage men younger than 18 in Pakistan was reported to be widespread and two participants in the Karachi focus group discussion said that they had experienced rape by police.
The same study reported that at least one young person in all of the focus groups disclosed experiencing sexual violence and in Pakistan, Philippines and China, rapes were not reported to the police because of shame and the belief that the police will not do anything.
Family Rejection, Bullying at School, Homelessness and Economic Hardship LGBT young people in the Global South experience extreme hardship within their communities rendering it extremely difficult for them to lead healthy lives and become productive adults. Across the world, LGBT youth report discrimination in schools. According to the Council for Global Equality, the Country Reports on Human Rights Practices produced by the State Department documents that in Dominican Republic, Latvia and Japan there were reported instances of school bullying with violence directed at transgender students as particularly severe.
Students who were bullied because of their actual or perceived sexual orientation had a 27 percent higher absenteeism rate than those who were not, according to the largest safe school studies to date. LGBT youth in and out of school experience discrimination, harassment, as well as violent abuse in some cases. These youth have been subjected to torture, including sexual abuse.
Religious rhetoric can also place LGBT people at risk. Due to lack of or poor implementation of comprehensive sex education, young people are not informed and educated. For example, the percentage of young people with comprehensive knowledge of HIV was just 39 percent for young men and 28 percent for young women 15 to 24 in sub-Saharan Africa. Inadequate access to comprehensive sex education, shown to be effective in delaying sexual activity and increasing condom use among young people who are sexually active, also undermines efforts to protect young people from acquiring HIV.
In West Africa, social taboos combined with tradition and religion makes it very difficult to implement comprehensive information around sexual and reproductive health. Lack of availability of condoms and lube can also make it difficult to engage in safer sex behaviors. According to a focus group convened in Asia by Youth Voices Count, condoms were not readily available in rural areas and young MSM and transgender women in Nepal and other countries did not have information about where to access lube.
Lack of access to comprehensive sexuality education or using materials that promote stereotypes can lead to violence and negative health outcomes. Punitive social and legal contexts along with limited access to sexual and reproductive health services are the main determinants for high prevalence of HIV amongst YMSM. Self-stigma, the Pressure to Marry and to Maintain Heterosexual Relationships LGBT youth are especially vulnerable to internalizing messages that frown upon any deviation from mainstream understandings of gender and sexuality which can lead to self-stigma, negative health outcomes and a diminished ability to envision a hopeful future.
Self-stigma can have devastating effects around self efficacy, negotiating healthy behaviors and access to care that can lead to negative health outcomes and that young MSM and transgender women reported struggling around self-acceptance, depression, anxiety, entering into relationships with older people where there was a power imbalance which affected self-efficacy including being able to use condoms and suicidal ideations.
The majority of studies on Caribbean men who have sex with men MSM show that many men also have sex with women. Similarly, women who have sex with women WSW often engage in heterosexual relations to avoid stigma and discrimination, or for childbearing purposes. In Pakistan, some lesbian and bisexual women enter into heterosexual marriage to escape violence from families of origin while others are forced to comply with family expectations.
Recommendations: Condemn the violence and bigotry committed against LGBT youth in the global south, and around the world. Specifically recognize and prioritize the needs of LGBT youth. Target specific funding for LGBT youth organizations and young human rights defenders.
All young people deserve to have complete and accurate information about their sexual and reproductive health, including sexuality, condoms and contraception, healthy relationships, and the prevention of violence, stigma, and discrimination.
Advocate for the inclusion of strong language recognizing the diversity of youth, including LGBT youth and other marginalized youth, at the United Nations. As young people themselves articulated in the UN Bali Global Youth Declaration, recognition of sexual rights is a critical component of guaranteeing the safety, security, and healthy development of LGBT youth. Advocate to make sure that laws criminalizing sexual assault must also address violence perpetrated against LGBT people.
Prohibit medically unnecessary procedures on intersex children. Revise criminal laws to remove offences relating to consensual same sex conduct and other offences used to arrest and punish persons on the basis of their sexual orientation, gender identity or expression.
Establish national standards on non-discrimination in education; develop anti-bullying programs and establish helplines and other services to support LGBT youth and gender-non-conforming youth; and providing comprehensive age-appropriate sexuality education.
Ensuring that housing policies do not discriminate against tenants based on sexual orientation and gender identity; and establishing shelters for homeless LGBT persons, with specific attention to youth, older persons and those in emergency situations. Successful Developments in the Global South: Despite these ificant challenges, as a result of strong LGBTQ movement and advocay, there have also been exciting developments in the global south that has shifted the discourse and given everyone hope that the importance of human rights for LGBTQ people are finally on the global agenda.
Inhomosexuality in Mozambique was decriminalized which revised the colonial penal code dating back to InArgentina put in place some of the most liberal rules on changing gender in the world, allowing people to alter their gender on official documents without first having to receive a psychiatric diagnosis or surgery. The ruling takes effect immediately, meaning same-sex couples can now marry throughout the South American nation. Annual reporting of discrimination and violence in schools in Brazil Human rights-based comprehensive sexuality education curriculum for schools in South Africa Scholarships for transgender persons to enroll in vocational training in Brazil Shelters for homeless LGBT youth Albania, United States Written by M.
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